BRAF: 7 Assays
|qBiomarker Somatic Mutation PCR Array: Human Melanoma|
|The Human Melanoma qBiomarker Somatic Mutation PCR Array is a translational research tool that allows rapid, accurate, and comprehensive profiling of the top somatic mutations in human melanoma in the following genes: BRAF, CDKN2A, CTNNB1/beta-catenin, GNAQ, HRAS, KIT, KRAS, NRAS, PIK3CA, and LKB1/STK11. These mutations warrant extensive investigation to enhance the understanding of carcinogenesis and identify potential drug targets. Numerous research studies have demonstrated the utility of individual and multiple somatic mutation status information in identifying key signaling transduction disruptions. For example, the mutation status of the EGFR and KRAS genes can predict the physiological response to certain drugs targeting these molecules. The Human Melanoma qBiomarker Somatic Mutation PCR Array, with its comprehensive content coverage, is designed for the study of mutations in the context of melanoma and has the potential for discovery and verification of drug target biomarkers for this cancer type and other cancer types in which these mutations have been identified. This array includes 37 DNA sequence mutation assays designed to detect the most frequent, functionally verified, and biologically significant mutations in human melanoma. These mutations were chosen from curated, comprehensive somatic mutation databases and peer-reviewed scientific literature, and represent the most frequently recurring somatic mutations compiled from over 5600 melanoma samples. Each 96-well array allows profiling of the mutation status of 2 samples, while each 384-well format array allows mutation profiling of 8 samples. The simplicity of the product format and operating procedure allows routine somatic mutation profiling in any research laboratory with access to real-time PCR instruments|
There are two major classes of BRAF mutations. One class leads to increased BRAF kinase activity, such as the p. V600E mutation. The other class leads to impaired kinase activity, such as the p.G469A mutation.
CDKN2A: 7 Assays
The top CDKN2A loss-of-function mutations occur in the consensus ankyrin domain, which leads to inability to form stable complexes with its targets.
CTNNB1: 2 Assays
The most frequently detected CTNNB1/beta-catenin mutations result in abnormal signaling in the WNT signaling pathway. The mutated codons are mainly several serine/threonine residues targeted for phosphorylation by GSK-3beta.
GNAQ: 2 Assays
The mutations queried by these assays all lie in the protein's GTP nucleotide binding domain.
HRAS: 1 Assay
The most important HRAS mutation in melanoma occurs at codon 61.
KIT: 2 Assays
The most frequently identified KIT gain-of-function mutations include the D816V point mutation, the exon 11 (juxtamembrane domain) deletion and point mutations, an exon 9 insertion mutation, and exon 13 point mutations.
KRAS: 3 Assays
The mutation assays include the most frequently occurring mutations in KRAS codons 12, 13, and 61. Mutations at these positions result in reduced intrinsic GTPase activity and/or cause KRAS to become unresponsive to RasGAP.
NRAS: 11 Assays
The mutation assays include the most important NRAS mutations at codons 12, 13, and 61.
PIK3CA: 1 Assay
The most frequently occurring PIK3CA mutations mainly belong to two classes: gain-of-function kinase domain activating mutations and helical domain mutations that mimic activation by growth factors.
STK11: 1 Assay
The most commonly detected STK11/LKB1 inactivation mutations are mainly due to truncation or point mutations.